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15- Embryology:
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       Several verses in the Qur’ân deal with the formation and development of human embryos, in such precise words as to conform with the modern science of embryology. Pregnancy starts with the combination of a single father’s sperm with a single mother’s ovum; to form a combined fertilized cell. The genetic characteristics are determined according to the respective cromosomes, combined or “mixed” together. Here the Qu’rân states:

        §   We have created man from nutfah (minute trace, drop) of mixed semen (sexual discharge of man and woman), in order to try him. [76/2]

         It is only one sperm out of millions that succeeds in fertilizing the ovum, and deciding the fate of the resulting embryo. This minute portion of semen is described by the Arabic word “nutfah”; which means: traces or minute remains of liquid:

          § Was he not nutfah of semen emitted (poured forth). Then he became an ‘Alaqah (a clinging mass, a clot); then (Allâh) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. [75/37-39]

     

For this reason also, it is almost impossible, except for Allâh, to know beforehand the gender of the new embryo, before much further growth:

       §  Allâh knows what every female bears and, by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or exceed. Everything with Him is in (due) proportion. [13/8]

     

As soon as the ovum is fertilized, it migrates back to the uterus where it implants or “clings” itself to the wall. Recall that the ovum fertilization occurs also through a sort of “clinging” the sperm to its wall. Either or both of these “clinging” processes are referred to clearly by the Arabic word of Alaq, in the first two verses revealed in the Qur’ân:

        § Read in the name your Lord, Who has created. He has Created man, from Alaq ( a clinging mass). [96/1-2]

      

Also, the following verses describe the whole stages of development of human embryo from an ‘Alaqah to an almost a morsel of flesh. At first, the multiplying cells do not show any definite shape, but gradually most of the cells evolve into different organs of the body, while other cells do not contribute to any specific form. Then a cartilage structure forms, that later evolves into the skeleton bones. Later these bones are clad with muscles. Qur’ân defines exactly the same sequence, as in  the following verses:

         § We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a nutfah (a trace of liquid), then from an Alaqah (a clinging mass, a clot), then from a Mudghah (a bite, morsel, a little lump of flesh), some formed and some unformed. [22/5]

         § Thereafter. We made him as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge) in a safe lodging. Then We made the Nutfah into an ‘Alaqah (a clinging mass). Then We made the ‘Alaqah into a Mudghah (a bite, morsel, a little lump of flesh), then We made out of that Mudghah: bones, then We  clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. [23/13-14]

      

During pregnancy, the embryo floats all the time in the amniotic fluid, that supplies it with all its needs. This liquid is kept in a strong “omnion” membrane. It gets its supply of food (and rejects wastes) through a second “chorion” membrane, that is intermediary between the omnion membrane and the third “decidua” membrane. These three membranes might be the “three veils” mentioned in the verse:

         §  He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in three veils of darkness. [39/6]

 

Another possible interpretation could be the three consequtive locations of the ovum during its trip from ovulation to the birth of the full baby, i.e. 1) the ovaries. 2) the fallopian tube where fertilization occurs. 3) the uterus