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Chapter 4: The Humanity of Jesus

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      It is a well-established fact that both Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) were human beings. Jesus lived a natural life that any other man might have lived. The miraculous birth of Jesus without a father was a sign of Allah’s might and His word “Be”, just as He created Adam from clay without a father or a mother by His command “Be”. Following are some related quotations from the canonical and non-canonical gospels and the Qur’an as a proof of the humanity of Jesus:  
 

    A- The pregnancy and the birth of Jesus  
 

       Both the gospels of Matthew and Luke attributed a lineage to Jesus which hardly has any relation to him. Both ancestral lines stated in the two gospels in fact belong to Joseph the Carpenter, the fiancé of Marry the Virgin. However, the two ancestral lines are quite different.  

*He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child. While they were there, the time came for the baby to be born, and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn. (Luke 2:5-7)

*On the eighth day, when it was time to circumcise him, he was named Jesus, the name the angel had given him before he had been conceived. (Luke 2:21)

*And the child grew and became strong; he was filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. (Luke 2:40)

*And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men. (Luke 2:52)

*As Jesus was saying these things, a woman in the crowd called out, “Blessed is the mother who gave you birth and nursed you.”  (Luke 11:27)
 

B. His family and profession  
 

*Coming to his hometown, he began teaching the people in their synagogue, and they were amazed. Where did this man get this wisdom and these miraculous powers? they asked. Isn’t this the carpenter’s son? Isn’t his mother’s name Mary, and aren’t his brothers James, Joseph, Simon and Judas? Aren’t all his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all these things? And they took offense at him.  But Jesus said to them, “Only in his hometown and in his own house is a prophet without honor.” (Matthew 13:54 – 57)

*”Where did this man get these things?” they asked. “What’s this wisdom that has been given him, that he even does miracles! Isn’t this the carpenter? Isn’t this Mary’s son and the brother of James, Joseph, Judas and Simon? Aren’t his sisters here with us?” And they took offense at him. Jesus said to them, “Only in his hometown, among his relatives and in his own house is a prophet without honor.” (Mark 6:2 – 4)  
 

C. His riding  
 

*Say to the daughter of Zion, “See, your king comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” (Matthew 21:5)

*Jesus found a young donkey and sat upon it, as it is written, “Do not be afraid, O daughter of Zion; see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey’s colt.” (John 12:14 – 15).
 

D. His hunger and eating  
 

*After fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry.    (Matthew 4:2)

*The son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous…  (Matthew 11:19)

*Early in the morning, as he was on his way back to the city, he was hungry. (Matthew 21:18)

*The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. (Mark 11:12)

*Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, “I am thirsty.” (John 19:28)

*The Son of man came eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Here is a gluttonous man… (Luke 7:34)

*He said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your minds? Look at my hands and my feet. It is I myself! Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have.” When he had said this, he showed them his hands and feet. And while they still did not believe it because of joy and amazement, he asked them, “Do you have anything here to eat? They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate it in their presence. (Luke 24:38-43)

*And fasted forty days and forty nights, not eating anything day nor night, making continual supplication to the Lord for the salvation of his people to whom God had sent him. And when the forty days were passed he was an hungered. (Barnabas 14)

*Jesus seated himself at the foot of the mountain, and they ate of the wild fruits, because  they had not bread (Barnabas 43)

*While Jesus was supping with his disciples in the house of Simon the leper. (Barnabas 25)  
 

E. His fatigue and sleep  
 

*Jesus replied, “Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the son of  man has no place to lay his head.” (Matthew 8:20)

*Jesus replied, “Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the son of man has  place to lay his head.” (Luke 9:58)

*But Jesus was sleeping. The disciples went and woke him.                (Matthew 8:24 – 25)

*As they sailed, he fell asleep. (Luke 8:23)

*Jesus was in the stern, sleeping on a cushion. The disciples woke him. (Mark 4:38)

*And Jesus, tired as he was from the journey, sat down by the well. (John 4:6)

*And Jesus was sleeping upon the prow of the ship. Then drew near to him his disciples, and awoke him, (Barnabas 20)  
 

F. His weeping, astonishment and fear  
 

*He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee along with him, and he began to be sorrowful and troubled. (Matthew 26:36)

*He took Peter, James and John along with him, and he began to be deeply distressed and troubled. “My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death, “he said to them.  “Stay here and keep watch.” (Mark 14:33 – 34)

*When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come along with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in spirit and troubled.               (John 11:33)

*Jesus wept. (John 11:35)

*Jesus, once more deeply moved… (John 11:38)

*While Jesus was speaking the disciples wept bitterly.  And Jesus wept many tears. (Barnabas 58)  
 

G. He affirms his humanity  
 

*As it is, you are determined to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. (John 8:40)

*“What things?” he asked. “About Jesus of Nazareth,” they replied. “He was a prophet, powerful in word and deed before God and all the people. (Luke 24:19)

*By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear. (John 5:30)

*The leper answered: 'I know that thou, Lord, art a man, but an holy one of the Lord. Wherefore pray thou to God. and he will give me health. (Barnabas 11)

*Then Jesus feared greatly, and tuning himself to God, said: 'Take me from the world!'. O Lord, for the world is mad, and they well nigh call me God!'. And having said this, he wept. (Barnabas 47)

*Verily I say unto you that, speaking from the heart, I tremble because by the world I shall  be called God, and for this I shall have to render an account. As God liveth, in whose presence my soul standeth, I am a mortal man as other men are, for although God has placed me as  prophet over the house of Israel… (Barnabas 52)

*Whereupon once more he lifted up his hand in token of silence, and the people being quieted from their weeping, he spoke once more: 'I confess before heaven, and I call to witness everything that dwelleth upon the earth, that  I am a stranger to all that ye have said; seeing that I am man, born of mortal woman, subject to the judgement of God suffering the miseries of eating and sleeping, of cold and heat, like other men. Wherefore when God shall come to judge, my words like a sword shall pierce each one of them that believe me to be more than man. (Barnabas 93)

*And having said this, Jesus said again: 'I confess before heaven, and call to witness everything that dwelleth upon the earth, that I am a stranger to all that men have said of me, to wit that I am more than man. For I am a man, born of a woman, subject to the judgement of God; that live here like as other men, subject to the common miseries. (Barnabas 94)

*For that I am a visible man and a morsel of clay that walketh upon the earth, mortal as are other men. And I have had a beginning, and shall have an end, and [ am ] such that I cannot create a fly over again. (Barnabas 95)

*Jesus answered: “I am Jesus, son of  Mary, of the seed of David, a man that is mortal and, I seek that to God be given honour and glory”. (Barnabas 96)
 

H. His praying to his Creator  
 

*Very early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house and went off to a solitary place, where he prayed. (Mark 1:35)

*Going a little farther, he fell to the ground and prayed (Mark 14:35)

*One of those days Jesus went out to a mountainside to pray, and spent the night praying to God. (Luke 6:12)

*But Jesus often withdrew to lonely places and prayed. (Luke 5:16)

*Jesus raised his hands to the Lord God and prayed. (Barnabas 12)

*Having finished his devotions, Jesus came down from the mountain with his disciples (Barnabas 19)

*When he had prayed to the Lord, his disciples came to him. (Barnabas 51)

*And having said this Jesus made prayer. (Barnabas 81)

*Having made the prayer, Jesus said: “Let us give thanks to God.” (Barnabas 84)

*His disciples drew nigh unto Jesus after the nightly prayer. (Barnabas 131)

*Then said Jesus: “Let us do reverence to our God, who is blessed for evermore.” Thereupon they bowed their heads an hundred times and prostrated themselves to earth upon their face in prayer. (Barnabas 179)  
 

English interpretations of Qur’anic verses:  

 

*… I have come to you with a Sign from your Lord. So fear Allah, and obey me. It is Allah Who is my Lord and your Lord; then worship Him. This is a Way that is straight." (3:50-51)

*Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehood) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject Faith, to the Day of Resurrection: then shall ye all return unto Me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute.” (3:55)

*The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him "Be": and he was.  (3:59)

*It is not (possible) that a man, to whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophetic office, should say to people: "Be ye my worshippers rather than Allah's": on the contrary (he would say): "Be ye worshippers of Him Who is truly the Cherisher of all: for ye have taught the Book and ye have studied it earnestly." (3:79-80)

*That they rejected Faith; that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge; That they said (in boast), "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah"; but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not. Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them. (4:156-159)

*O People of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) A Messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One God: glory be to Him: (far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs. Christ disdaineth not to serve and worship Allah, nor do the angels, those nearest (to Allah): those who disdain His worship and are arrogant, He will gather them all together unto Himself to (answer).” (4:171-172)

*In blasphemy indeed are those that say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary. Say: "Who then hath the least power against Allah, if His Will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary, his mother, and all, everyone that is on the earth? For to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between. He createth what He pleaseth. For Allah hath power over all things." (5:17)

*They do blaspheme who say: "Allah is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah, Allah will forbid him the Garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help. They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One God. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.” (5:72-73)

*Christ, the son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth make His Signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth!  (5:75)

*And behold! I inspired the Disciples to have faith in Me and Mine Messenger; they said, `We have faith, and do thou bear witness that we bow to Allah as Muslims’. Behold! the Disciples said: "O Jesus the son of Mary! can thy Lord send down to us a Table set (with viands) from heaven?" Said Jesus: "Fear Allah, if ye have faith." (5:111-112)

*And behold! Allah will say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! didst thou say unto men, 'Worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah'?" He will say: "Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, Thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart, though I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden. "Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, 'Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord'; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when thou didst take me up thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things. "If Thou dost punish them, they are Thy servants: if Thou dost forgive them, Thou art the Exalted in power, the Wise." (5:116-118)

*They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah, and (they take as their Lord) Christ, the son of Mary; yet they were commanded to worship but One God: there is no god but He. Praise and glory to Him: (far is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him). Fain would they extinguish Allah's Light with their mouths, but Allah will not allow but that His Light should be perfected, even though the Unbelievers may detest (it). (9:31-32)

*He said: "I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet; "And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live: "(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable; "So Peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)!" Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute. It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be," and it is. Verily Allah is my Lord and your Lord: Him therefore serve ye: this is a way that is straight. (19:30-36)

*And We made the son of Mary and his mother as a Sign: We gave them both shelter on high ground, affording rest and security and furnished with springs. O ye Messengers! enjoy (all) things good and pure, and work righteousness: for I am well-acquainted with (all) that ye do. And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood. And I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore fear Me (and no other). (23:50-52)

*When (Jesus) the son of Mary is held up as an example, behold thy people raise a clamour thereat (in ridicule)! And they say, "Are our gods best, or he?" This they set forth to thee, only by way of disputation: yea, they are a contentious people. He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel. (43:57-59)

*When Jesus came with Clear Signs, he said: "Now have I come to you with Wisdom, and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah and obey me. "For Allah, He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship ye Him: this is a Straight Way." But sects from among themselves fell into disagreement: then woe to the wrong-doers, from the Penalty of a Grievous Day!       (43:63-65)

The Qur’an confirms the manhood of all messengers saying:

*And before thee also the Messengers We sent were but men, to whom We granted inspiration: if ye realise this not, ask of those who possess the Message. (We sent them) with Clear Signs and Scriptures and We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought. (16:43-44)

*And the Messengers whom We sent before thee were all (men) who ate food and walked through the streets: We have made some of you as a trial for others: will ye have patience? For Allah is One Who sees (all things). (25:20)