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Faith - Deviations

Evidence Principles Deviations

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Lesson 16
Comparative Religion

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Main Points

* All inspired holy messages were originally one message: “Allah is One without any associate”, One who has not begotten and has not been begotten.

* Reason for deviation of faiths: the intervention of human beings like priests, clergy, statesmen and leaders who strive to change what Allah has revealed to His prophets.

* Polytheistic faiths have one or more of the following manifestations:

i)               Associating other than Allah in worship

ii)             Attributing a son or wife to Allah

iii)            Considering Allah as of two or three personal subjects with different names

iv)           Hallowing and deifying human prophets and other good men

v)             Worshipping idols, pictures, or material icons

vi)           Considering the clergy, leaders, distinguished sects or groups as sacrosanct

vii)          Modifying revealed texts by human hands, or hallowing human texts

viii)        Claiming the death of the worshipped god, his resurrection from grave, and ascension to heavens as an expiation for the human sins.


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Evidence of Qur'an and Sunnah

Faiths of polytheism:

Associating other than Allah in worship:


Allah says:

]وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّهِ إِلاَّ وَهُم مُّشْرِكُونَ[
(يوسف: 106)

This means: “And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him [i.e. they are Mushrikun – polytheists].”
(12, Yusuf: 106)

Allah says:

]وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ مَا لاَ يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلاَ يَنفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَـؤُلاء شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِندَ اللّهِ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللّهَ بِمَا لاَ يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلا فِي الأَرْضِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ[ (يونس: 18)

This means: “And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allah." Say: "Do you inform Allah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?" Glorified and Exalted be He above all that which they associate as partners with Him!” (10, Yunus: 18)

Allah says:

]وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَمَا لَيْسَ لَهُم بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِين مِن نَّصِير[
(الحج: 71)

This means: “And they worship besides Allah others for which He has sent down no authority, and of which they have no knowledge and for the Zhalimun (wrong-doers, polytheists and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) there is no helper.” (22, Al-Hajj: 71)

Allah says:

]وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لا يَنفَعُهُمْ وَلا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَكَانَ الْكَافِرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ ظَهِيرًا[ (الفرقان: 55)

This means: “And they (disbelievers, polytheists, etc.) worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them, and the disbeliever is ever a helper (of the Satan) against his Lord.”
(25, Al-Furqan: 55)

Affiliating a son or a wife to Allah:

Allah says:

]وَجَعَلُواْ لِلّهِ شُرَكَاء الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ[
(الأنعام: 100)

This means: “Yet, they join the jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them (the jinns), and they attribute falsely without knowledge sons and daughters to Him. Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him.” (6, Al-An`am: 100)

Allah says:

]وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُون[ (البقرة: 116)

This means: “And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allah has begotten a son (children or offspring). Glory be to Him (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 116)

Allah says:

]وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللّهِ وَقَالَتْ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللّهِ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِم يُضَاهِؤُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن قَبْلُ قَاتَلَهُم اللّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ[
(التوبة: 30)

This means: “And the Jews say: 'Uzayr (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah's Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth!” (9, At-Tawbah: 30)

Allah says:

]قَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَات وَمَا فِي الأَرْض إِنْ عِندَكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ بِهَـذَا أَتقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ[
(يونس: 68)

This means: “They (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: ''Allah has begotten a son (children).'' Glory be to Him! He is Rich (Free of all wants). His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. No warrant you have for this. Do you say against Allah what you know not.” (10, Yunus:68)

Allah says:

]أَلا إِنَّهُم مِّنْ إِفْكِهِمْ لَيَقُولُونَ. وَلَدَ اللَّهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُون[
(الصافات: 151 - 152)

This means: “Verily, it is of their falsehood that they (Quraysh pagans) say: Allah has begotten off spring or children (i.e. angels are the daughters of Allah)?" And, verily, they are liars!” (37, As-Saffat: 151 - 152)

Considering Allah as one of two or three subjects with different names:

Allah says:

]لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلاَثَةٍ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَـهٍ إِلاَّ إِلَـهٌ وَاحِدٌ[
(المائدة: 73)

This means: “Surely, disbelievers are those who said: "Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity)." But there is no ilah (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilah (God -Allah).” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 73)

Allah says:

]يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لاَ تَغْلُواْ فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقِّ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ فَآمِنُواْ بِاللّه وَرُسُلِهِ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ ثَلاَثَةٌ انتَهُواْ خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ إِنَّمَا اللّهُ إِلَـه وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَات وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ وَكِيلاً[ (النساء: 171)

This means: “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah aught but the truth. The Messiah 'Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Ruh) created by Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: "Three (trinity)!" Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One Ilah (God), Glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All­Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.” (4, An-Nis’: 171)

Allah says:

]وَقَالَ اللّهُ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ إِلـهَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَإيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ[
(النحل: 51)

This means: “And Allah said (O mankind!): “Take not ilahayn (two gods in worship, etc.). Verily, He (Allah) is (the) only One Ilah (God). Then, fear Me (Allah SWT) much [and Me (Alone), i.e. be away from all kinds of sins and evil deeds that Allah has forbidden and do all that Allah has ordained and worship none but Allah].” (16, An-Nahl: 51)

Deifying human beings:

Allah says:

]تَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْن مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُواْ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُواْ إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا لاَّ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُون[
(التوبة: 31)

This means: “They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Tawrah (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to worship none but One Ilah (God – Allah) La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him).” (9, At-Tawbah: 31)

Allah says:

]لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ[
(المائدة: 17)

This means: “Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary).” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 17)

Allah says:

]لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ وَقَالَ الْمَسِيحُ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اعْبُدُوا اللّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ[
(المائدة: 72)

This means: “Surely, they have disbelieved who say: "Allah is the Messiah ['Isa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary)." But the Messiah ['Isa (Jesus)] said: "O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord."”  (5, Al-Ma’idah: 72)

Allah says:

]وَإِذْ قَالَ اللّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَـهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَن أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ إِن كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ[ (المائدة: 116)

This means: “And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): "O 'Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: 'Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?' " He will say: "Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner­self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All­Knower of all that is hidden and unseen.''”
(5, Al-Ma’idah: 116)

 Modifying the revealed texts:

Allah says:

]أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلاَمَ اللّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ[
(البقرة: 75)

This means: “Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion in spite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allah (the Tawrah (Torah)) then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it?” (2, Al-Baqarah: 75)

Allah says:

]ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُواْ فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ[ (البقرة: 176)

This means: “That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur'an) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 176)

Allah says:

]وَإِنَّ مِنْهُمْ لَفَرِيقًا يَلْوُونَ أَلْسِنَتَهُم بِالْكِتَابِ لِتَحْسَبُوهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَقُولُونَ هُو  مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ[
(آل عمران: 78)

This means: “And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (as they read), so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say: "This is from Allah," but it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it.”
(3, Al-`Imran: 78)

Allah says:

]كُلُّ الطَّعَامِ كَانَ حِـلاًّ لِّبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِلاَّ مَا حَرَّمَ إِسْرَائِيلُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تُنَزَّلَ التَّوْرَاةُ قُلْ فَأْتُواْ بِالتَّوْرَاةِ فَاتْلُوهَا إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ[
(آل عمران: 93)

This means: “All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israel made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah (Torah) was revealed. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Bring here the Tawrah (Torah) and recite it, if you are truthful.” (3, Al-`Imran: 93)

Allah says:

]وَإِذَ أَخَذَ اللّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلاَ تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاء ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ ثَمَنا قَلِيلاً فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ[
(آل عمران: 187)

This means: “(And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the news of the coming of Prophet Muhammad SAW and the religious knowledge) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought.” (3, Al-`Imran: 187)

Allah says:

]مِنَ الَّذِينَ هِادُواْ سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِه[ (المائدة: 41)

This means: “And of the Jews are men who listen much and eagerly to lies - listen to others who have not come to you. They change the words from their places.” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 41)

Alleged crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus:

Allah says:

]وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَـكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ مَا لَهُم بِهِ عِلْمٍ إِلاَّ اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنّ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا. بَل رَّفَعَهُ اللّهُ إِلَيْهِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَزِيزًا مِنْ
 حَكِيمًا[ (النساء: 157 – 158)

This means: “And because of their saying (in boast), "We killed Messiah 'Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allah," - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Isa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not [i.e. 'Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary): But Allah raised him ['Isa (Jesus)] up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All­Powerful, All­Wise.” (4, An-Nisa’: 157 - 158)

 

 

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