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Faith - Principles


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Lesson 8

Faith in Allah


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Main Points

*  The pillars of faith are six: belief in Allah, His Angels, His inspired Books, His Messengers and Prophets, the Last Day, and in destiny whether good or evil.

Belief in Allah

*  Belief in Allah is the belief in His Existence, His Oneness and Uniqueness, His Sole Godhood (Rububiyyah) and Divinity.

* The Existence of Allah is a self-evident truth, since nothing exists without having someone putting it to existence and order.

*  The Oneness of Allah is a rational truth, proved by the unity of the universe and its laws. The existence of various gods indicates non-unity in the system of the universe. Belief in the Oneness of Allah stipulates belief in the Oneness of His Soul, Attributes, and Deeds.

The Sole Godhood of Allah is that His total sovereignty over the universe with all its creatures, provisions, and systems postulates the unity of Godhood and negates it from anyone other than Allah.

The Divinity of Allah means the bondage of all creatures to Allah, the One. It is an involuntary bondage of all living creatures and things, while it is deliberately chosen by believers, as shown in their obedience to Allah in faith, behavior, and actions.

*  The Monotheism of Allah requires submission to Him Alone in all the laws He sent down. This does not confine human freedom to codify and legislate issues not tackled by a Divine text or any guidance of Allah and His Messenger. Human legislation should not contradict the general goals of Islamic laws, Qur’anic text, authentic tradition in Sunnah, or any ruling based on any of these.

The Attributes of Allah as displayed in the Qur’an and Sunnah should be understood according to the rules of the Arabic language, without additions or denial, without arguing what is beyond human understanding or transcending the human tangible capabilities to grasp these Attributes.


Evidence of the Qur'an and Sunnah

The pillars of faith:

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ آمِنُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَكْفُر بِاللّهِ وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا[
(النساء: 136)

This means: “O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and the Book (the Qur'an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him), and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.” (4, An-Nisa’: 136)

Allah says:

]وَلَـكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةِ وَالْكِتَاب وَالنَّبِيِّين[
(البقرة: 177)

This means: “But Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 177)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“One day while Allah’s Prophet was sitting with the people, a man came to him walking and said, ‘O Allah's Prophet. What is faith?’ The Prophet said, ‘Faith is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Prophets, and the meeting with Him, and to believe in the Resurrection.’” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Oneness of Allah:

Allah says:

]لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُون[ (الأنبياء: 22)

This means: “Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) gods besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) above what they attribute to Him!” (21, Al-Anbiya’: 22)

Allah says:

]قُل لَّوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ آلِهَةٌ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذًا لاَّبْتَغَوْاْ إِلَى ذِي الْعَرْشِ سَبِيلاً. سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا[
(الإسراء: 42 - 43)

This means: “Say (O Muhammad SAW to these polytheists, pagans, etc.): If there had been other aliha (gods) along with Him as they assert, then they would certainly have sought out a way to the Lord of the Throne. Glorified and High be He! from (the great falsehood) that they say! (i.e.forged statements that there are other gods along with Allah, but He is Allah, the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, whom all creatures need. He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable or coequal unto Him).” (17, Al-Isra’: 42 - 43)

Allah says:

]مَا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ مِن وَلَدٍ وَمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ إِلَهٍ إِذًا لَّذَهَبَ كُلُّ إِلَهٍ بِمَا خَلَقَ وَلَعَلا بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ[
(المؤمنون: 91)

This means: “No son (or offspring or children) did Allah beget, nor is there any ilah (god) along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allah above all that they attribute to Him!” (23, Al-Mu’minun: 91)

Allah says:

]شَهِدَ اللّهُ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَأُوْلُواْ الْعِلْمِ قَآئِمَاً بِالْقِسْطِ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ[
(آل عمران: 18)

This means: “Allah bears witness that La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice. La ilah illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” (3, Al-`Imran: 18)

There are many other similar verses in the Holy Qur’an, the enlightening book of monotheism.

The Sole Godhood of Allah:

Allah says:

]فَإِنَّهُمْ عَدُوٌّ لِّي إِلا رَبَّ الْعَالَمِين. الَّذِي خَلَقَنِي فَهُوَ يَهْدِينِ. وَالَّذِي هُوَ يُطْعِمُنِي وَيَسْقِين.ِ وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِين. ِ وَالَّذِي يُمِيتُنِي ثُمَّ يُحْيِينِ[
(الشعراء: 77 - 81)

This means: “(Prophet Abraham says): Verily! They are enemies to me, save the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists); Who has created me, and it is He Who guides me; And it is He Who feeds me and gives me to drink. And when I am ill, it is He who cures me; And Who will cause me to die, and then will bring me to life (again).” (26, Ash-Shu`ara’: 77 - 81)

Allah says

]قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاء وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْر فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ. فَذَلِكُمُ اللّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقّ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلاَّ الضَّلاَلُ فَأَنَّى تُصْرَفُونَ[ (يونس: 31 - 32)

This means: “Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?" They will say: "Allah." Say: "Will you not then be afraid of Allah's Punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allah)?'' Such is Allah, your Lord in truth. So after the truth, what else can there be, save error? How then are you turned away?” (10, Yunus: 31 - 32)

Allah says:

]قُل لِّمَنِ الأرْضُ وَمَن فِيهَا إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُون. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفلا تَذَكَّرُونَ[ (المؤمنون: 84 - 85)

This means: ''Say: “Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!'' They will say: "It is Allah's!" Say: "Will you not then remember?"” (23, Al-Mu’minun: 84 - 85)

Allah says:

]قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاء وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاء وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاء وَتُذِلّ مَن تَشَاء بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِير.ٌ تُولِجُ اللَّيْل فِي الْنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَاب[
(آل عمران: 26 - 27)

This means: “Say (O Muhammad SAW): "O Allah! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and You take the kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do all things. You make the night to enter into the daytime, and You make the daytime to enter into the night. You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit (measure or account).''” (3, Al-`Imran: 26 - 27)

Allah says:

]قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ[
(الناس: 1)

This means: “Say: "I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind.''” (114, An-Nas: 1)

Allah says:

]الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ[
(الفاتحة: 2)

This means: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).” (1, Al-Fatihah: 2)

The bondage of all creatures to Allah:

Allah says:

]وَلِلّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَظِلالُهُم بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالآصَال[
(الرعد: 15)

This means: “And unto Allah (Alone) falls in prostration whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.” (13, Ar-Ra`d: 15)

Allah says:

]أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الأرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَر وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ وَكَثِيرٌ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ الْعَذَابُ وَمَن يُهِنِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِن مُّكْرِم إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يَشَاء[
(الحج: 18)

This means: “See you not that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawab (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allah disgraces, none can honor him. Verily! Allah does what He wills.” (22, Al-Hajj: 18)

Allah says:

]تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَاوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا[
(الإسراء: 44)

This means: “The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.” (17, Al-Isra’: 44)

Allah says:

] وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإنسَ إِلا لِيَعْبُدُون[
(الذاريات: 56)

This means: “And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone)” (51, Adh-Dhariyat: 56)

Allah says:

]وَاعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئًا[
(النساء: 36)

This means: “Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship.” (4, An-Nisa’: 36)

There are so many other similar verses in the Qur’an.

  Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) addressed Mu`adh Ibn Jabal as he was riding behind him to which he replied: Here I am! At your service and at your beck Messenger of Allah. He again called out: Mu`adh, to which he (again) replied: Here I am! At your service and at your beck. He (the Messenger of Allah) addressed him (again): Mu`adh, to which he replied: Here I am! At your service and at your beck, O Messenger of Allah. (The Prophet) said:

“If anyone testifies (sincerely from his heart) that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is His bondsman and His Messenger, Allah immunizes him from Hell. He (Mu`adh) said: O Messenger of Allah, should not I then inform the people of it, so that they may be cheered? He replied: Then they would trust in it alone. Mu`adh (may Allah be pleased with him) told about it at the time of his death, to avoid sinfulness.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Applying the legislation of Allah:

Allah says:

]وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهمُ بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ . أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ[
(المائدة:49 - 50)

This means: “And so judge (you O Muhammad SAW) between them by what Allah has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they turn you (O Muhammad SAW) far away from some of that which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that Allah's Will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. And truly, most of men are Fasiqun (rebellious and disobedient to Allah). Do they then seek the judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm Faith.” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 49 - 50)

Allah says:

]وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُون[
(المائدة: 44)

This means: “And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Kafirun (i.e. disbelievers – of a lesser degree as they do not act on Allah’s Laws).” (4, Al-Ma’idah: 44)

The attributes of Allah:

Allah says:

]لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ[
(الشورى: 11)

This means: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” (42, Ash-Shura: 11)

Allah says:

]وَلِلّهِ الأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُواْ الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَآئِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ[
(الأعراف: 180)

This means: “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” (7, Al-A`raf: 180)

Allah says:

]قُلِ ادْعُواْ اللّهَ أَوِ ادْعُواْ الرَّحْمَـنَ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُواْ فَلَهُ الأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى[
(الإسراء: 110)

This means: “Say (O Muhammad SAW): Invoke Allah or invoke the Most Beneficent (Allah), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.” (17, Al-Isra’: 110)

Allah says:

]الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى[
(طه: 5)

This means: “The Most Beneficent (Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty)” (20, Taha: 5)

Allah says:

]ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْش[
(الأعراف: 54)

This means: “And then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).” (7, Al-A`raf: 54)

Allah says:

]وَجَاء رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا[
(الفجر: 22)

This means: “And your Lord comes with the angels in rows.”
(89, Al-Fajr: 22)

Allah says:

]فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا[
(الطور: 48)

This means: “You are under Our Eyes.” (52, At-Tur: 48)

Allah says:

]وَاصْنَعِ الْفُلْكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَوَحْيِنَا[
(هود: 37)

This means: “And construct the ship under Our Eyes and with Our Inspiration.” (11, Hud: 37)

  Allah says:

]وَلِتُصْنَعَ عَلَى عَيْنِي[
(طه: 39)

This means: “In order that you may be brought up under My Eye.”
(20, Taha: 39)

Allah says:

]بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَان يُنفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَاء[
(المائدة: 64)

This means: “Both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends (of His Bounty) as He wills.” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 64)

Allah says:

]يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِم[
(الفتح: 10)

This means: “The Hand of Allah is over their hands.” (48, Al-Fath: 10)

Allah says:

]وَالسَّمَاء بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُون[
(الذاريات: 47)

This means: “And the heaven, We have built it with (Our) hands and surely We are indeed extending (it) wide.” (51, Adh-Dhariyat: 47)

The Prophet’s supplication:

“I ask You by every name of Yours by which You described Yourself, revealed in Your Book, taught one of Your creatures, or kept in Your knowledge of the unseen, to make the Holy Qur’an the spring (i.e., the season of awakening after the dead of winter) of my heart, the light of my chest, the removal of my sadness, and the lifting of my depression.” (Reported by Ahmad)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah's Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Verily, there are ninety-nine names for Allah, i.e., hundred excepting one. He who enumerates them will get into Paradise.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Verily, the hearts of all the sons of Adam are between two fingers out of the fingers of the Compassionate Lord as one heart. He turns that to any (direction) He likes.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said:

“Either side of His Hands is the right side both being equally meritorious.” (Reported by Muslim)

 The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

There is a reported statement saying that: Istiwa’ (rising over) is known, the manner of it is unknown, believing in it is obligatory, and asking about it is a heresy in religion.