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Lesson 81

State (2)

Watch / Listen: Video Browse: PowerPoint Download / Print: Word  

Main Points

·   Obedience to rulers and administrators is an obligation, except if one is asked to disobey Allah and His Prophet (peace be upon him).

·   The responsibility of government is great, as the ruler will be asked about every aspect of the nation on the Day of Resurrection.[5]

·   Responsible people will be reckoned for illegal earnings.

·   Rulers must be careful not to choose evil ministers and assistants.[6]

·   Freedom of faith is given to any person living on the Muslim land.

·   Human brotherhood, equality, and interaction are fundamental in dealing with people from all over the globe.

·   International treaties are absolutely respected, unless other parties break them first.[7]

·   It is unlawful to ally with or take as friends any of those who wage wars or hostilities towards Islam and Muslims, those who drive Muslims out of their homes and territories, or those who support or endorse such hostilities or actions 


 The responsibilities of the rulers:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“The Imam is like a shelter for whose safety the Muslims should fight and where they should seek protection. If the Imam orders people with righteousness and rules justly, then he will be rewarded for that, and if he does the opposite, he will be responsible for that.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“When a judge gives a decision, having tried his best to decide correctly and is right, there are two rewards for him; and if he gave a judgment after having tried his best (to reach a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“Anyone amongst the bondsmen (of Allah) who was entrusted with the affairs of some subjects and he died in such a state that he was dishonest in his dealings with those over whom he ruled, Paradise would be forbidden for him.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“All of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards. The ruler is a guardian of his subjects.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Obedience to the rulers and administrators:

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“It is obligatory on a Muslim that he should listen (to the ruler) and obey whether he likes it or not except when he is ordered to do a sinful thing. In such a case, he is not obliged to listen or to obey.”
Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“If a slave is appointed over you and he conducts your affairs according to the Book of Allah, you should listen to him and obey (his orders).” (Reported by Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) said:

“Listen (attentively to) and obey whoever placed in authority over you even if he is a negro slave whose head is like a raisin.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Reckoning one’s self:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“O people, if any of you is put in an administrative post on our behalf and conceals from us a needle or more, he is acting unfaithfully and will bring it on the Day of Resurrection.” (Reported by Muslim)

Abu Hamid As-Sa`idi narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“What about a man whom I give an assignment and he comes and says: This is for you and this has been given to me as a gift? Why did not he stay in his father’s house or the house of his mother so that he could wait if gifts will be bestowed to him or not? By Allah in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, anyone of you shall not take anything (from the public money) unduly but will bring it on the Day of Judgment, carrying on his neck a camel that will be grunting, or a cow that will be bellowing, or an ewe that will be bleating. Then he raised his hands so that we could see the whiteness of his armpits. Then he said twice: O Allah! I have conveyed (Your commandments).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

He (peace be upon him) said:

“The best fighting (jihad) in the path of Allah is (to speak) a word of justice to an oppressive ruler.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Entourages of the rulers:

Allah says:

]وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُواْ بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُواْ فَرِيقًا مِّن أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُون[ (البقرة: 188)

This means: “And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 188)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah neither raised up any Prophet nor did He authorize any person with ruling power but for whom there were two types of entourage: one enjoins upon him to do good and incites him to carry it out, and the other enjoins evil and goads him; and the protected (from the bad entourage) is the one whom Allah protects.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“The similitude of good company and that of bad company is that of the owner of musk and of the one (iron-smith) blowing bellows. The owner of musk would either offer you free of charge or you would buy it from him or you would smell its pleasant odor, and as far as one who blows the bellows is concerned, he would either burn your clothes or you shall have to smell its repugnant smell.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Abu Bakrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“A person praised another person in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him), whereupon he said: Woe be to you. You have broken the neck of your friend, he said this twice. If one of you has to praise his friend at all, he should say: I think (him to be) so and Allah is sufficient for him, and I cannot testify his purity against Allah but (he appears) to be so and so.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Freedom of faith:

Allah says:

]وَلَوْ شَاء رَبُّكَ لآمَنَ مَن فِي الأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا أَفَأَنتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَكُونُواْ مُؤْمِنِينَ[ (يونس: 99)

This means: “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you (O Muhammad SAW) then compel mankind, until they become believers.” (10, Yunus: 99)

Allah says:

]لاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ[
(البقرة: 256)

This means: “There is no compulsion in religion.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 256)

Human brotherhood:

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاء وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءلُونَ بِهِ وَالأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا[ (النساء: 1)

This means: “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All­Watcher over you.” (4, An-Nisa’: 1)

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا[ (الحجرات: 13)

This means: “O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another.” (49, Al-Hujurat: 13)

International treaties:

Allah says:

]وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِ اللّهِ إِذَا عَاهَدتُّمْ وَلاَ تَنقُضُواْ الأَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلاً إِنَّ اللّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ. وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّتِي نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِن بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنكَاثًا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلاً بَيْنَكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَى مِنْ أُمَّةٍ إِنَّمَا يَبْلُوكُمُ اللّهُ بِهِ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُون[
(النحل: 91 - 92)

This means: “And fulfill the Covenant of Allah (Bay'ah: pledge for Islam) when you have covenanted, and break not the oaths after you have confirmed them, and indeed you have appointed Allah your surety. Verily! Allah knows what you do. And be not like her who undoes the thread which she has spun after it has become strong, by taking your oaths a means of deception among yourselves, lest a nation may be more numerous than another nation. Allah only tests you by this [i.e who obeys Allah and fulfills Allah's Covenant and who disobeys Allah and breaks Allah's Covenant]. And on the Day of Resurrection, He will certainly make clear to you that wherein you used to differ [i.e. a believer confesses and believes in the Oneness of Allah and in the Prophethood of Prophet Muhammad SAW which the disbeliever denies it and that was their difference amongst them in the life of this world].” (16, An-Nahl: 91 - 92)

Allah says:

]إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَى إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُون[ (الممتحنة: 9)

This means: “It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zhahlimun (wrong-doers those who disobey Allah).” (60, Al-Mumtahinah: 9)