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Lesson 84

War and Peace (1)

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Main Points
 

·   Jihad is commanded in Islam for two reasons:

a) The propagation of Islam throughout the world, to face the oppressive and tyrannical powers that prevent people by force from knowing Islam, and the free conviction of its message and prohibit them from implementing the justice of Islam.

b) The protection of the Islamic society from aggressors, security threats, and any entity that fights against its faith.

·   Jihad is the highest rank in Islam.

·   Fighting against unbelievers and non-Muslims who fight Islam is a communal obligation on all Muslims. However, if the enemy enters the country, Jihad becomes an individual obligation on every Muslim and those recruited for this purpose.[14]

·  Ar-Ribat is to be in guard and defend in a frontier territory, points of danger, and watch out to know the plans of the enemy. This is also a communal obligation and one of the most gracious deeds.[15]

·   To prepare a military force both technically and financially is a communal obligation and a necessity that precedes Jihad.

·   Conditions for Jihad are: sincere intention, Muslim leadership, obedience to the leadership, and the parents' approval to participate.

·   The warrior should adhere to firmness, steadfastness and patience.[16]


 

Evidence of Qur'an and Sunnah


The legality and merit of Jihad:

Allah says:

]وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لاَ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلّه فَإِنِ انتَهَوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ[ (الأنفال: 39)

This means: “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do.” (8, Al-Anfal: 39)

Allah says:

]إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنيَانٌ مَّرْصُوص[
(الصف: 4)

This means: “Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure.” (61, As-Saf: 4)

Allah says:

]أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ. الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلا أَن يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ وَلَوْلا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ[
(الحج: 39 - 40)

This means: “Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers), who are fighting them, (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely, Allah is Able to give them (believers) victory. Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah." - For had it not been that Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. Verily, Allah will help those who help His (Cause). Truly, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty.” (22, Al-Hajj: 39 - 40)

Allah says:

]وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَآفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَآفَّةً[ (التوبة: 39)

This means: “And fight against the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) collectively, as they fight against you collectively.” (9, At-Tawbah: 36)

Allah says:

]إِنَّ اللّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُم الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ[ (التوبة: 111)

This means: “Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Tawrah (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.” (9, At-Tawbah: 111)

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ. تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَيُدْخِلْكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ وَمَسَاكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ[
(الصف: 10 - 12)

This means: “O You who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment. That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! (If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn ­ Eternity ['Adn (Edn) Paradise], that is indeed the great success.”
(61, As-Saf: 10 - 12)

Allah says:

]وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ. فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ[
(آل عمران: 169 - 170)

This means: “Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty.”
(3, Al-`Imran: 169 - 170)

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

“The example of a Mujahid in Allah’s Cause - and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause - is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“If one is wounded in Allah’s path, he will come on the Day of Resurrection with his wound spouting blood having the color similar to blood but the fragrance like that of Musk.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“If one dies without fighting in the cause of Allah or without believing it to be his duty, he will die with one characteristic of hypocrisy in him.” (Reported by Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“By Him in whose Hand is Muhammad’s life, if it were not to be too hard upon the Muslims, I would not lag behind any expedition which is going to fight in the cause of Allah, but I have neither abundant means to provide them with conveyance (horses), nor all other Muslims have, and it will be hard on them to remain behind when I go forth (for the Jihad). By whom in whose Hand is Muhammad’s life, I like to fight in the way of Allah and get martyred, then (brought to life) to fight again and get martyred and then (brought to life) to fight again and get martyred.”
(Reported by Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“No servant of Allah whose feet become dusty in the cause of Allah will touch the fire (of Hell).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“No one who wishes to return to this world after entering Paradise even if he should be given all what the world contains, except a martyr who yearns to return to the world and be killed ten times on account of the dignity that he experiences by virtue of his martyrdom.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“A man said: O Messenger of Allah, guide me to a deed that is equal to Jihad? He said: I do not find an act which is equal to it in reward. He then said: Can you continue prayer and fasting unceasingly as long as the Mujahid is fighting in the cause of Allah? He replied: Who can do this?” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“Someone asked the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him): Who is the best man? He answered: A believer who strives in the cause of Allah with his life and property. The man asked: Who is the next after him? He said: That who retires into a narrow valley, fears Allah, and safeguards people from his mischief.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Ar-Ribat:

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اصْبِرُواْ وَصَابِرُواْ وَرَابِطُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُون[ (آل عمران: 200)

This means: “O you who believe! Endure and be more patient (than your enemy), and guard your territory by stationing army units permanently at the places from where the enemy can attack you, and fear Allah, so that you may be successful.” (3, Al-`Imran: 200)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Guarding the frontier for a day is better than the world and all that is in it.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

He (peace be upon him) also said:

“The (good) deeds of any dead person stop increasing except that of the one who keeps on safeguarding frontiers in the way of Allah because his deeds will go on increasing until the Day of Resurrection, and he will be safe from the trials of the grave.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

The Prophet (SAWS) said, "One night of guard duty in the cause of Allah the Exalted is better than a thousand nights stood in night prayer and days of fasting." [Ahmad]

 He (peace be upon him) also said:

“Two eyes will never be touched by the fire of Hell: an eye which weeps out of fear of Allah and an eye which spends the night guarding for the sake of Allah.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

The Prophet (SAWS) said, "He who voluntarily keeps guard behind Muslims for the sake of Allah, not being forced to do so by a sultan, his eyes will not see the fires (of hell) except to fulfil Allah's oath." [Ahmad]

It was narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded a man to guard the Muslim camp in the Conquest of Hunayn at night. In the morning, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked him:

“Did you dismount during the night? The man replied: No, except to pray or to relieve myself. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: You have ensured your entry to (Paradise). No blame will be attached to you supposing you do not work after it.”
(Reported by Abu Dawud)

The preparation of military force:

Allah says:

]وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدْوَّ اللّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ[ (الأنفال: 60)

This means: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy.” (8, Al-Anfal: 60)

`Uqbah Ibn `Amir Al-Juhani (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying on the pulpit: ]وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ[ (8, Al-Anfal: 60) [This means: “And make ready against them all you can of power”]. “Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery.” 
(
Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah, Most High, will cause three persons to enter Paradise for one arrow: the maker when he has a good motive in making it, the one who shoots it, and the one who hands it; so shoot and ride, but your shooting is dearer to me than your riding. Everything with which a man amuses himself is vain except three (things): a man's training of his horse, his playing with his wife, and his shooting with his bow and arrow. If anyone abandons archery after becoming an adept through distaste for it, it is a blessing he has abandoned; or he said: for which he has been ungrateful.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)


Conditions for Jihad:

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was asked about one who fights for displaying valor, one who fights (out of fanaticism) to protect his people, one who fights out of boldness, and one who fights to show off, which is regarded in Allah’s cause? He said:

“That who fights so that Allah’s Word is the superior (strives in the cause of Allah) is in Allah’s cause.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

`Abdullah Ibn `Amr Ibn Al-`As (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“A man came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and said: I pledge allegiance for migration and Jihad seeking Allah’s reward. He said: Is one from your parents alive? He said: Yes, both of them are alive. He asked: Do you seek reward from Allah? He said: Yes. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Go back to your parents and treat them kindly. (Reported by Muslim(

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“If a person notices in his ruler what he dislikes, he should endure it because that who departs from (i.e. be disobedient to) the Sultan a hand’s breadth dies like those who had died in the pre-Islamic times.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)