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Lesson 21
Qur'anic Rulings

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Main Points

·      The Qur’anic verses are: Al-Muhkam, i.e., clear verses that are needless of interpretation and are not subject to repeal and Al-Mutashabih, i.e. consimilar verses that may be interpreted as having more than one meaning and need to be explained.

·      Kinds of consimilar verses are:

a) Those which any scholar can explain through other clear verses.

b) Those which are known only to a few scholars.

c) Those that are vague to everyone until now.[7]

·      The graduation in legislation in the time of the Prophet called for the repealing of certain rulings by others.

·      The types of repealing[are: the repealing of recitation and ruling together, the repealing of recitation only, and the repealing of the ruling only. The forms of repealing are: the repealing of the Qur’an by the Qur’an, the repealing of a Sunnah by the Qur’an, the repealing of a Sunnah, or a Prophet’s deed with a stronger one, and the repealing of the Qur’an with a Mutawatir (successive) Sunnah (see 1-2), which is permitted by some scholars and prevented by others.


Evidence of the Qur'an and Sunnah

Clear and consimilar verses:

Allah says:

]هُوَ الَّذِيَ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَاب وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ[ (آل عمران: 7)

This means: “It is He Who has sent down to you (Muhammad SAW) the Book (this Qur'an). In it are Verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book [and those are the Verses of Al-Ahkam (commandments, etc.), Al-Faraid (obligatory duties) and Al-Hudud (legal laws for the punishment of thieves, adulterers, etc.)]; and others not entirely clear.” (3, Al-`Imran: 7)


Allah says:

]مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللّهَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ[
(البقرة: 106)

This means: “Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allah is able to do all things?” (2, Al-Baqarah:106)

Allah says:

]يَمْحُو اللّهُ مَا يَشَاء وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَاب[
(الرعد: 39)

This means: “Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz).”
(13, Ar-Ra`d: 39)

Allah says:

]وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَّكَانَ آيَةٍ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ[
(النحل: 101)

This means: “And when We change a Verse [of the Qur'an, i.e. cancel (abrogate) its order] in place of another, and Allah knows the best of what He sends down.” (16, An-Nahl: 101)