Sources - Hadith
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rigorously authenticated Hadith: It is characterized by five conditions:
uninterrupted chain of transmission, moral integrity of narrators, the
exactitude of the narrators, being devoid of irregularity, i.e., not to be
against a more reliable one, and being without any defect. These are the
conditions of the rigorously authenticated Hadith .
rigorously authenticated Hadith of another: It is a well-authenticated Hadith
narrated by many methods which strengthen each other.
well-authenticated Hadith of itself: It has an uninterrupted chain of
transmission. Its narrators have moral integrity, but their exactitude is lesser
than that of rigorously authenticated Hadith.
well-authenticated Hadith of another: This is basically a weak Hadith, but
narrated by multiple methods which support each other. However there must be no
doubt of lying or viciousness of the narrators.
differs from the other scholars of Hadith in the definition of the
well-authenticated Hadith and the “well and rigorously
The weak Hadith is that
which lacks one of the conditions set for the rigorously or well-authenticated
Hadith. Its weakness and degree of unreliability vary according
to the extent or the degree it lacks such conditions.
A Hadith is not accepted
A Hadith is not accepted
transmitted Hadith (Mursal): It does not state, in the end of its chain of
transmission, the Companion who related it directly to the Prophet.
Hadith (Mu`allq): From the beginning of its chain of transmission one or more,
of the narrators, are successively not stated. (Some of the suspended Hadiths of
Al-Bukhari and Muslim are exceptionally accepted.).
Hadith (Mu`dil): Two successive narrators or more are missing.
Hadith (Munqati`): This is one in which a narrator is missing in (one point or
more of) the chain of transmission, or in which an unknown narrator is
mentioned, but it is neither incompletely
transmitted, suspended, nor problematic.
Hadith (Mudallas): The chain includes a latent missing which was deliberately
contrived by the narrator to conceal a weakness or disruption in the chain of
narrators, so as to improve its presentation. Among its types is the latent
incompletely transmitted Hadith in which the narrator quotes some of his
contemporaries although it has been proved that they never met nor heard from
Hadith (Mu`allal): This is one that embodies a defect causing its invalidation.
Hadith (Mudraj): This is one in which the narrator incorporated his own words
into the content, or false narrators into the chain of transmission.
Hadith (Munkar): This is a Hadith that contradicts the narration of a more
Hadith (Shadh): This is one that was narrated by a trusted narrator, but differs
from that of a more acceptable narrator, having better exactitude or greater
number of narrations.
Hadith (Maqlub): This is a Hadith which one of its narrators has rearranged the
text or the chain of transmission.
Hadith (Mudtarib): A Hadith narrated in contradictory ways, while none is
preferred over the other due to their equal strength.
or corrupted Hadith (Musahhaf, or Muharraf): This is one in which a word or more
are changed in the content or in the chain of transmission, due to a change in
the place of dots over (Arabic) letters or of the letter form.
Hadith (Mukhtalit): This is one whose narrator is mistaken because of senility,
impaired vision, or loss of references.
Hadith (Matruk): This is one in which narrator is accused of lying, the Hadith
is known only through him, and is against the general rules.
Hadith (Mawdu`): This is one invented and falsely attributed to the Prophet.
There are many motives behind forgery undertaken by enemies of Islam, political
powers, factions, and others, but the scholars of Hadith managed to devise
criteria to identify and refute forged Hadiths.