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Worship - Praying

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Lesson 39
Adhan - Shortening / Combining

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Main Points

        ·        The Adhan (call for prayers) should be loud in villages and cities as a communal obligation on Muslims.

        ·        The Iqamah (call to commence prayer) should be loud as an obligatory Sunnah.

        ·   It is recommended that the caller be known for his honesty. He should slow down in calling for prayer but speed up to commence the prayer. It is recommended to listen to the call and the commencement of prayer, and to repeat the words inwardly, pray for benediction on the Prophet (peace be upon him), and to supplicate for any good thing.[15]

        ·        Shortening the four-Rak`ah prayers to two Rak`ahs is lawful, when traveling for more than eighty kilometers, as a confirmed Sunnah. Shortening starts on departure until arrival and is allowed unless a person intends to stay four days or more in the town of destination.[16]

        ·        It is permissible to combine two prayers together for the traveler, by either advancing or delaying the two prayers of Noon and Afternoon in either time period. The same is true for the Sunset and Evening prayers. Combining is permissible also for the inhabitants of a town when there is extremely bad weather, for the patient who can not perform every prayer in its due time, and in times of fear.[


Evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah

Adhan (call for prayer):

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“When (the time of) the prayer comes, then one of you should pronounce the Adhan for the prayer and the oldest of you should lead the prayer.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

“A man from the Ansar, came. And he turned his face towards the Qiblah and said: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; come to prayer (he pronounced it twice), come to salvation (he pronounced it twice); Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. He then paused for a while, and then got up and pronounced in a similar way, except that after the phrase ‘Come to salvation’ he added. ‘The time for prayer has come, the time for prayer has come.’ The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Teach it to Bilal, then pronounce the Adhan (call to prayer) with the same words.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“So whenever you are with your sheep or in the wilderness and you want to pronounce Adhan for the prayer, raise your voice in doing so, for whoever hears the Adhan, whether a human being, a jinn, or any other creature will be a witness for you on the Day of Resurrection.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“When you hear the Mu’adhin, repeat what he says, then invoke a blessing on me, for everyone who invokes a blessing on me will receive ten blessings from Allah; then beg from Allah Al-Wasilah for me, which is a rank in Paradise fitting for only one of Allah's servants, and I hope that I may be that one. If anyone who asks that I be given the Wasilah, he will be assured of my intercession (for him).” (Reported by Muslim)

It was narrated:

“Bilal began the Iqamah, and when he said: ‘The time for prayer has come,’ the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: May Allah establish it and cause it to continue.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“The supplication made between the Adhan and the Iqamah is not rejected.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)


 Shortening prayers:

Allah says:

]وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُواْ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ[
(النساء: 101)

This means: “And when you (Muslims) travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten your Salah (prayer).” (4, An-Nisa’: 101)

When he was asked about shortening the Salah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“It is an act of charity which Allah has done to you, so accept His charity.” (Reported by Muslim)

Combing the two prayers:

Usamah Ibn Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) was on his way back from `Arafat and as he reached the creek (of a hillock) he got down and urinated (Usamah did not say that he poured water), but said: He (the Holy Prophet) called for water and performed ablution, but it was not a thorough one. I said: Messenger of Allah, the prayer! Thereupon he said: Prayer awaits you ahead (at Muzdalifah). He then proceeded until he reached Muzdalifah and observed Sunset and Evening prayers (together) there.” (Reported by Muslim)

`Abdullah Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“I saw the Prophet delaying the Sunset prayer to offer it along with the Evening prayer when he was in a hurry on a journey.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)