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Lesson 40

Patient, Fear and Friday Prayers

Main Points

        ·        If a patient can not stand, he can pray sitting lowering his back more for prostration than for of bowing. If he can not sit, he may lay on his side or his back and pray by gesturing.

        ·        The prayer because of fear is lawful during times of war:

a) In travel (shortening prayers): the warriors are divided into two groups, one confronting the enemy while the other pray a Rak`ah behind the Imam and another Rak`ah  individually; afterwards the Imam is fixed to his place and the two groups exchange places.

b) When at home, the same as when traveling but the prayer for each group is two Rak`ahs with the Imam and two individually.

c) When war is at its zenith, prayers can be performed in any form; walking or riding.

        ·        Friday Congregational Prayer : It is obligatory for all Muslim men to assemble and benefit from the sermon. It is a two-Rak`ahs prayer instead of the four-Rak`ahs Noon prayer. It is obligatory for every sane, adult, healthy man residing in a village or city, while women and boys may attend. Delivering the Friday sermon is a necessary element. The Sunnah is to give two sermons and between them a short break.

        ·        When joining the Imam in the second Rak`ah of prayer, one has to perform the first after the Imam offers the final greeting. However, if he did not attend the second Rak`ah, then the four Rak`ahs of the Noon prayer must be performed.

        ·        It is a Sunnah of the Friday Congregational Prayer to bathe, use perfume (for men only), wear clean clothes, go to mosque before the Imam, perform any voluntary prayers, before the sermon, concentrate with the Imam, and not to be occupied with talk and nonsense, besides not to overstep those who are sitting, nor separate them. Also, a person should increase praying for benediction on the Prophet (peace be upon him) and supplicating to Allah, and read Surah Al-Kahf at night (on Thursday) or during the day on Friday.

        ·        It is prohibited to buy and sell at the time of the call for Friday Prayer until it ends.

Evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah

 Prayer of the sick:

`Imran Ibn Husayn (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“I had piles, so I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the prayer. He said, ‘Pray while standing and if you can not, pray while sitting and if you can not do even that, then pray lying on your side.’”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)30 Fear prayer:

Allah says:

]وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلاَةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلْيَكُونُوا مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَى لَمْ يُصَلُّواْ فَلْيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ[ (النساء: 102)

This means: “When you (O Messenger Muhammad SAW) are among them, and lead them in As-Salah (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salah (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which has not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms.” (4, An-Nisa’: 102)

Allah says:

] فَإنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالاً أَوْ رُكْبَانًا[ (البقرة: 239)

This means: “And if you fear (an enemy), perform Salah (pray) on foot or riding.”
(2, Al-Baqarah: 239)

Salih Ibn Khawwat narrated:

“One batch lined up behind him (the Prophet) while another batch (lined up) facing the enemy. The Prophet (peace be upon him) led the batch that was with him in one Rak`ah, and he stayed in the standing posture while that batch completed their (two Rak`ahs) prayer by themselves and went away, lining in the face of the enemy, while the other batch came and he (i.e. the Prophet) offered his remaining Rak`ah with them, and then, kept on sitting till they completed their prayer by themselves, and he then finished his prayer with Taslim along with them.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If the number of the enemy is greater than that of the Muslims, they can pray while standing or riding (individually).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Narrated 'AbdullahI Ibn-Unais,  "The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) sent me to Khalid Ibn-Sufyan al-Hudhaliyy. I saw him when the time of the afternoon prayer had come. I said: I am afraid if a fight takes place between me and him that might delay the prayer. I proceeded walking towards him while I was praying making a sign. When I reached near him, …" [Abu-Dawud and Ahmad]

 Friday prayer:

Its obligation:

Allah says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِي لِلصَّلاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ[ (الجمعة: 9)

 This means: “O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salah (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allah [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), that is better for you if you did but know!” (62, Al-Jumu`ah: 9)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“People must cease to neglect the Friday Prayer or Allah will seal their hearts and then they will be among the negligent.” (Reported by Muslim) 

The grace of Friday:

The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was expelled (from Paradise), on it his contrition was accepted, on it he died, and on it the Last Hour will take place.” (Reported by Muslim)

Catching the congregation:

The Prophet (SAWS) said, "Whoever catches one rak’ah of the (Jumu’ah) prayer then he has caught the whole prayer." [an-Nasa’i]

 The Sunnahs of Friday prayer:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Taking a bath on Friday is compulsory for every male Muslim who has attained the age of puberty and (also) the cleaning of his teeth with Siwak, and the using of perfume, if it is available.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“Taking a bath on Friday is essential for every adult person.”

(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“He who takes a bath on Friday, just as the bath which is obligatory after the sexual discharge, and then goes (to the mosque), he is like one who offers a she-camel as a sacrifice, and he who comes at the second hour is like one who offers a cow, and he who comes at the third hour is like one who offers a ram with horns, and he who comes at the fourth hour is like one who offers a hen, and he who comes at the fifth hour is like one who offers an egg. And when the Imam comes out, the angels are also present and listen to the remembrance of Allah (the sermon).”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“If a man takes a bath on Friday, purifies himself thoroughly, uses oil and perfume which is available in the house, sets forth for the mosque, does not (forcibly) sit between two persons, offers the prayer that is prescribed for him and listens to the Imam silently, his sins between this Friday and the previous Friday will be forgiven.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

 Good manners of sitting in the mosque:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If you (even) ask your companion to be quiet on Friday while the Imam is delivering the sermon, you have in fact talked nonsense.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“One who engages in playing with pebbles while the sermon is delivered is committing a nonsense.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“When anyone of you comes on Friday while the Imam is delivering the sermon, he should observe two Rak`ahs and should make them short.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet (SAWS) said to a man stepping across the necks of people in the mosque, “Sit down for you did harm indeed.” [An-Nasa’iyy and Abu-Dawud].

Prayer for benediction on the Prophet:

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“Among the most excellent of your days is Friday. On that day, increase the prayers on me, for your prayers are conveyed to me. They (the Companions) said: O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you and your body will decay? He said: Allah, the Exalted and Almighty, has forbidden the earth to decay the bodies of the prophets.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

Invocation on Friday:

The Prophet (peace be upon him):

“There is a time on Friday at which no Muslim servant would pray and would ask Allah for a thing (that is good) but He would give it to him.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Reciting Surah Al-Kahf:
The Prophet (SAWS) said, "Whoever recites Surat al-Kahf on the night of Friday, the light will shine for him between him and the Ancient House (al-Ka’ba)." [Ad-Darimy]