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Worship - Praying

Purification Praying
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
  Zakah   Fasting   Pilgrimage  
43 44 45 46 47 48

Lesson 42
Voluntary Prayers

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Main Points
 

        ·        Unconfirmed Sunnah accompanying the obligatory prayers are two Rak`ahs prayer before and after the Noon prayer plus the confirmed Sunnah prayer, two Rak`ahs prayer before the Afternoon prayer, two Rak`ahs prayer before the Sunset prayer, and two Rak`ahs prayer after the Evening prayer plus the Witr prayer.[23]

        ·        Voluntary Sunnah are also:

a) Two Rak`ahs greeting prayer on entering the mosque.

b) At-Tarawih prayers on the nights of Ramadan, from eight to twenty Rak`ahs

c) Tasabih (glorification) prayer, to be performed once in life.

d) The prostration during recitation, when reciting or hearing the Qur’anic verses of prostration.

e) Ad-Duha (forenoon) prayer from four to eight Rak`ahs.

f) Two Rak`ahs prayer after ablution.

g) Two Rak`ahs prayer for seeking guidance (Istikharah) with its specific invocation.

h) Two Rak`ahs prayer to repent

i) Prostration of gratitude.

j) Two Rak`ahs prayer on arrival after traveling.

k) Two Rak`ahs prayer before the Evening prayer.

        ·        It is recommended to perform voluntary prayers at any time other than the forbidden times. These are  when the sun has risen, that is, after the sunrise for almost ten minutes, and afternoon until sunset.[24]

        ·     Janazah (funeral) prayer: It is a communal obligation. It has the same conditions of regular prayers. It is performed while standing upright without bowing or prostrating. It is one Rak`ah with four Takbirahs: to recite Al-Fatihah after the first Takbirah, to invoke benediction on the Prophet (peace be upon him) like the formula of the Tashahhud after the second Takbirah to supplicate for the dead person after the third one, and to utter any other supplication after the fourth one, then the final greeting at the end of the prayer.[

25]
 

Evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah

 The unconfirmed Sunnah prayers:

`Abdullah Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“I offered with Allah's Prophet a two Rak`ahs prayer before the Zhuhr (Noon) prayer and two Rak`ahs after the Zhuhr prayer, two Rak`ahs after Jumu`ah (Friday), Maghrib (Sunset) and `Isha’ (Evening) prayers.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“The Prophet never missed four Rak`ahs before the Zhuhr (Noon) prayer and two Rak`ahs before the Fajr (Dawn) prayer.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

  The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“There is a prayer between the two Adhans (Adhan and Iqamah).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“May Allah show mercy to a man who prays four Rak`ahs before the Afternoon prayer.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Nawafil (voluntary prayers):

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah, the Exalted, said, ‘And My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil (pray or do extra good deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“The first thing about which the people will be called to account out of their actions on the Day of Judgment is prayer. Our Lord, the Exalted, will say to the angels - though He knows better: Look into the prayer of My servant and see whether he has offered it perfectly or imperfectly. If it is perfect, that will be recorded perfect. If it is defective, He will say: See if there are some optional prayers offered by My servant. If there are optional prayers to his credit, He will say: Compensate the obligatory prayer by the optional prayer for My servant. Then all the actions will be considered similarly.” (Reported by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ahmad)

The prayer of greeting the mosque:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If anyone of you enters a mosque, he should not sit until he has offered a two Rak`ahs prayer.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

  Duha prayer:

“The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah, the Exalted, says: Son of Adam, do not be helpless in performing four Rak`ahs for Me at the beginning of the day, and I will supply what you need till the end of it.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Tarawih prayer of the month of Ramadan:

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“He who performs the optional prayer during Ramadan out of faith and hoping to earn a reward, his past sins will be pardoned.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Two Rak`ahs after performing ablution:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If a Muslim performs ablution and does it well and offers prayer, all his (sins) during the period from one prayer to another would be pardoned by Allah.” (Reported by Muslim)

Arrival from a travel:

Ka`b Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came back from a journey, he used to start with the mosque wherein he prayed two Rak`ahs.” (Reported by Muslim)

The two Rak`ahs prayer of repentance:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“When a servant (of Allah) commits a sin, and he performs ablution well, and then stands and prays two Rak`ahs, and asks pardon of Allah, Allah pardons him.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Before the prayer of Sunset:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“’Pray before the Maghrib (Sunset) prayer.’ He (said it thrice) and in the third time, he said, ‘Whoever wants to offer it can do so.’” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Istikharah prayer:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If anyone of you thinks of doing any job, he should offer a two Rak`ahs prayer other than the compulsory ones and say (after the prayer): 'O Allah! I ask guidance from Your Knowledge, And power from Your Might and I ask for Your Great Blessings. You are capable and I am not. You know and I do not and You know the unseen. O Allah! If You know that this job is good for my religion and my subsistence and in my hereafter - (or said: If it is better for my present and later needs) - then ordain it for me and make it easy for me to get and then bless me in it. And if You know that this job is harmful to me in my religion and subsistence and in the Hereafter - (or said: If it is worse for my present and later needs) then keep it away from me and let me be away from it, and ordain for me whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it.' The Prophet added that the person should name (mention) his need.”
(
Reported by Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, and Abu Dawud)

  Need prayer:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“He who performs ablution properly and then performs two Rak`ahs while perfecting them, Allah will give him what he asks sooner or later.” (Reported by Ahmad)

Tasbih (glorification) prayer:

The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said to Al-`Abbas Ibn `Abdul-Muttalib:

“`Abbas, my uncle, shall I not give you, shall I not present to you, shall I not donate to you, shall I not produce for you ten things? If you act upon them, Allah will forgive you your sins, first and last, old and new, involuntary and voluntary, small and great, secret and open. These are the ten things: you should pray four Rak`ahs, reciting in each one Fatihat Al-Kitab and a Surah. When you finish the recitation of the first Rak`ah, you should say fifteen times while standing: “Subhana Allah Wal Hamdu Lillah Wa La Ilaha Illa Allah Wallahu Akbar” (Glory be to Allah, Praise be to Allah, There is no god but Allah, Allah is the Greatest). Then, you should bow and say it ten times while bowing. Then, you should raise your head after bowing and say it ten times. Then, you should kneel down in prostration and say it ten times while prostrating yourself. Then, you should raise your head after prostration and say it ten times. Then, you should prostrate yourself and say it ten times. Then, you should raise your head after prostrating and say it ten times. These are seventy-five times in each Rak`ah. You should do that in four Rak`ahs. If you can observe it once daily, do so; if not, then once weekly; if not, then once a month; if not, then once a year; if not, then once in your lifetime.”
(Reported by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah)

Prostration of gratitude:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“I begged my Lord and made intercession for my people, and He gave me a third of my people, so I prostrated myself in gratitude to my Lord. Then I raised my head and begged my Lord for my people, and He gave me a third of my people, so I prostrated myself in gratitude to my Lord. Then I raised my head and begged my Lord for my people and He gave me the remaining third, so I prostrated myself in gratitude to my Lord.”
(Reported by Abu Dawud)

Recitation prostration:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“When the son of Adam recites the Ayah (verse) of Sajdah (prostration) and then falls down in prostration, Satan goes into seclusion and weeps and says: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him, and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and I am doomed to Hell.” (Reported by Muslim)

`Amr Ibn Al-`As (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Prophet (peace be upon him) taught me fifteen prostrations while reciting the Qur'an, including three in Al-Mufassal (The Surahs starting from Qaf Surah to the end of the Holy Qur’an) and two in Surah Al-Hajj. (Reported by Abu Dawud)

Janazah (funeral) prayer:

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“If three rows of men offer funeral prayer over anyone, his (entry into Paradise) will become certain.”
(Reported by At-Tirmidhi)