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Worship - Fasting

Purification Praying
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
  Zakah   Fasting   Pilgrimage  
43 44 45 46 47 48


Lesson 46

Voluntary Fasting

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Main Points
 

        · Days recommended for fasting throughout the year are:

a) The day of `Arafah (for other than the pilgrim)

b) The day of `Ashura’ and a day before it (tenth and ninth of Muharram)

c) Six days in Shawwal

d) Any day in the first half of Sha`ban

e) The first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah

f) Any days in Muharram

g) The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of every lunar month (White Days)

h) Mondays and Thursdays

i) Fasting a day and breaking one’s fast the next day (the fast of the Prophet David, (peace be upon him)

j) Increasing fasting for the unmarried person who can not afford marriage expenses.[9]

        ·   Days in which fasting is offensive are the day of `Arafat for the pilgrim, singling out Friday or Saturday for fasting, and the second half of Sha`ban.

        ·   Cases in which fasting is highly offensive are the doubtful day (the thirtieth of Sha`ban), fasting everyday for life, continuous fasting of days and nights without a break, and a married woman fasting (in other than Ramadan) without the consent of her husband.[10]

        ·   Fasting is prohibited on the two days of Al-Fitr Bairam and Al-Adha (Sacrifice) Bairam, on the three days of Tashriq (days following the immolation day), for the severely ill patient, and for women having their monthly period, or post-natal bleeding.


 

Evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah

Days recommended for fasting:

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was questioned about the fast on the day of `Arafah, he said:

“It is expiation for the sins of the preceding year and the coming one.” (Reported by Muslim)

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was asked about the fasting on the tenth day of Muharram, he replied:

“It expiates the sins of the previous year.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“If I remain alive until the next year, I shall keep the fast on the ninth of Muharram (as well).” (Reported by Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“If one fasts throughout Ramadan and then followed it with fasting on the first six days of Shawwal (after the `Id day), it will be counted as if he has fasted throughout the year.” (Reported by Muslim)

`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“I did not see the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) completing the fast of a month, but that of Ramadan, and I did not see him fasting more in any other month than that of Sha`ban.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“There are no days during which righteous action is so pleasing to Allah as righteous action in the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. He was asked: O Messenger of Allah, not even striving in the Cause of Allah? He replied: Not even striving in the Cause of Allah except in the case of one who goes forth with his life and his property and does not return with either of it.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“The best month for fasting next to Ramadan is Muharram.”
(Reported by Muslim)

Qatadah Ibn Milhan (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered us to fast on the three ''white Days'': thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of each lunar month.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Actions are presented on Mondays and Thursdays, so I like that my actions may be presented while I am fasting.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“To Allah, the best fast is that of David, and the best prayer is that of David (peace be upon him) for he would sleep half of the night and stand for prayer for one third of it and (then) would sleep on sixth of it, and he would fast one day and break it on the other. He used not to flee on encountering the enemy.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“He who can afford to marry should marry, because it will help him refrain from looking at other women, and save his private parts from committing illegal sexual relation; and he who can not afford to marry is advised to fast, as fasting is a safeguard (from lust).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Cases in which fasting is offensive:

Offensive fasting:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) prohibited fasting on the day of `Arafah at `Arafah.” (Reported by Ahmad)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“None of you should observe optional fasting on Friday unless along with another day, before or after it.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Do not fast on Saturday except what has been made obligatory on you; and if one of you can get nothing but a grape skin or a piece of wood from a tree, he should chew it.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“When the middle of Sha`ban comes, do not fast.”
(Reported by Abu Dawud)

Highly offensive fasting:

`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) prohibited continuous fasting.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Do not fast continuously day and night (Al-Wisal practice).”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)

`Ammar Ibn Yasir (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“He who fasts the day of Shakk (in which it is not decided whether the following day is the beginning of Ramadan or not), disobeys Abul-Qasim, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).”
(Reported by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Whoever fasts daily throughout his life is just as the one who does not fast at all.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Abu Qatadah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“`Umar asked the Prophet: Messenger of Allah, what is the position of one who perpetually observes fast? Thereupon, he said: 'He neither fasted nor broke it,' or he said: 'He did not fast and he did not break it.'  (Reported by An-Nasa’i)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“It is not lawful for a woman to fast (optional fasting) without the permission of her husband if he is at home.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Prohibited fasting:

`Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“Allah's Prophet has forbidden people to fast on the day on which you break fasting (the fast of Ramadan) and the day on which you eat the meat of your sacrifices.” (i.e. the first day of Al-Adha Bairam).
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“The days of Tashriq are the days of eating and drinking.”
(Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Is it not true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect (loss) in her religion.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari)