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Lesson 47

Integrals - Ihram / Tawaf
 

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Main Points
 

  ·  There are certain conditions that must be met in order to make the pilgrimage (Hajj) and the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah) obligatory for a person. A person must be Muslim, sane, and mature. Hajj must be affordable to him (i.e. expenses, transportation, and safety of the road).

        ·   Hajj, one of the five pillars of Islam, is obligatory to be performed once in one’s lifetime, while `Umrah is a highly recommended Sunnah.

        ·    The Prophet (peace be upon him) incited the desire for Hajj and `Umrah and warned from neglecting them.

        · It is permissible for the one who already performed Hajj to do it on behalf of another person who is unable to perform it because of illness, old age, or death.

       · Hajj and `Umrah have rites, obligatory elements, prohibitions, and Sunnah.

       · Rites: Hajj and `Umrah are invalidated if either of them is left.

       · Obligatory elements: It is a sin not to perform any of them. There is a ruling legislated by Allah to be imposed upon he who rejects one of these elements.

       ·  Prohibitions: The Lawgiver prohibited certain things, and each has rulings if it is done.

        ·   Sunnahs: They are all enactments done by the Prophet (peace be upon him), other than the rites and obligations. They are recommended to be performed, but it is not a sin if one fails to do them.

        ·  The rites of Hajj are four:

          a) Ihram

          b) Tawaf (Circumambulation around the Ka`bah)

          c) Sa`y (Hastening between As-Safa and Al-Marwah): only obligatory for Hanafi School

         d) Standing on Mount `Arafah

       ·  The rites of `Umrah are: Ihram, Tawaf, and Sa`y.

Ihram

        ·        It is mandatory to enter the state of Ihram from the sites and on times prescribed by the Lawgiver, and not to wear sewn clothes (for men). If any of these two acts are not accomplished, an animal (e.g. sheep) should be slaughtered or one has to fast for ten days for those who can not afford.

        ·   It is unlawful while being in Ihram to cover the head with headgear, shave or cut one’s hair, trim one’s nails, apply perfume, or wear sewn clothes. If any of these is performed, one has to make up for it by fasting for three days, feeding six indigent people, or slaughtering a sheep.

        ·   Sexual intercourse nullifies Hajj. All its rituals, beside slaughtering a camel or a cow, or fasting ten days, must be first completed. Sexual prelude is also prohibited and the expiation is to slaughter a sheep, the same as for killing or hunting a game in the Haram. Marriage or engagement is also forbidden, but no expiation is stipulated except repentance and asking for forgiveness.

        ·   Sunnahs of Ihram are bathing, wearing a clean white cloth, entering Ihram after performing a prayer, trimming one’s nails, trimming one’s moustache, removing pubic hair, as well as continuous recitation of the Talbiyah: Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk (here I am at Your service, my Lord!), supplication, and praying the benediction on the Prophet (peace be upon him). Talbiyah is an obligation for the Maliki Juristic School.

Tawaf (Circumambulation)

        ·   In Hajj, there are three circumambulations: Tawaf Al-Ifadah (going-forth) which is a pillar rite of Hajj and Hajj is not accomplished without it, as well as Tawaf Al-Qudum (arrival) and Tawaf Al-Wada` (farewell) which are obligatory.

        ·   The conditions of Tawaf are like those of prayer, namely, intention, purity, ablution, and covering one’s private parts. It is performed inside Al-Masjid Al-Haram (Inviolable Mosque), making the Ka`bah at the left-hand side and doing seven consecutive rounds in an anti clockwise direction.

        ·   Sunnahs of Tawaf are: to kiss the Black Stone at the beginning of Tawaf if possible (or to touch or point to it), to recite a certain invocation at the beginning and the end of every circumambulation, to touch the Yamani Corner and kiss the Black Stone whenever it is passed if possible, pray two Rak`ahs after Tawaf behind Maqam Ibrahim, and to drink from Zamzam.

        · Also, for men, it is a Sunnah to hasten in their steps during the first three rounds of Tawaf Al-Qudum, as well as to uncover the right shoulder.

        ·  Among the good manners of Tawaf are submission, deep devotion, and talking only when necessary.


 

Evidence of Qur'an and Sunnah


Obligation of Hajj:

Allah says:

]وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً[
(آل عمران: 97)

This means: “And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka'bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, on those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance, provision and residence).” (3, Al-`Imran: 97)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Islam is raised on five (pillars): The testification that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is His bondsman and Messenger, the establishment of prayer, the payment of Zakah, the pilgrimage to the House of Allah (Ka`bah), and fasting during Ramadan.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“Al-Aqra` Ibn Habis asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying: Messenger of Allah! Hajj is to be performed annually or only once? He replied: Only once, and if anyone performs it more often, he performs a supererogatory act.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

 

Umrah is a highly recommended Sunnah:

Allah says:

]وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّه[
(البقرة: 196)

This means: “And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)) the Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allah.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 196)

Laqit Ibn `Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that he came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and said: My father is a very old man who is not able to perform Hajj or `Umrah or to undertake the journey. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Perform Hajj and `Umrah on behalf of your father.”
(Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Hajj and `Umrah are recommended:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was asked: Which of the deeds is the best? He replied: Faith in Allah and his Messenger. It was said: What is next? He replied: Striving in the Cause of Allah. It was said: What is thereafter? He replied: An accepted Hajj.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

  The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Whoever performs Hajj without talking indecently or committing any fault returns from the Hajj as the day on which his mother gave birth to him (i.e. free from sins).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Hajj which is accepted will receive no reward other than Paradise.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“I requested the Prophet to permit me to participate in Jihad, but he said, "Your Jihad is the performance of Hajj.” (Reported by Muslim)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“An `Umrah is an expiation for the sins committed between it and the next, and Hajj which is accepted will receive no reward other than Paradise.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

The Prophet (SAWS) said, "He who owns supplies and a riding camel [conveyance] to take him to the Ka’ba (House of Allah) but does not perform hajj, then it does not matter if he dies as a Jew or a Christian." [at-Tirmidhi]

Ihram:

Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“Allah's Messenger had fixed Dhul-Hulayfah as the Miqat (a place from where a person assumes Ihram) for the people of Medina; Al-Juhfah for the people of Sham; and Qarn Al-Manazil for the people of Najd; and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. So, these (above-mentioned) are the Mawaqit for all those living at those places and, besides them, for those who come through those places with the intention of performing Hajj and `Umrah. Whoever lives within these places (i.e. nearer to Mecca) should assume Ihram from his dwelling place, and similarly the people of Mecca can assume lhram from Mecca.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“A Muhrim should not wear a shirt, or a turban, or a cap, or trousers, Nor (should he wear) stockings (i.e. no sort of sewn clothes). But in case he does not find shoes, (but before wearing stockings) should trim them (in such a way) that they should become lower than the ankles.” Also, he should not wear a cloth touched with wars (wars was opplied as dyestuff to the clothes) or with saffron. (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Talbiyah:

Its Wording:

“labbayka Allahumma Labbayka. Labbayka La Sharika Laka Labbayka. Innal-hamda Wan-ni`mata laka Wal Mulk. La Sharika Lak”. (I respond to Your call, O Allah, I respond to Your call, and I am obedient to Your orders, You have no partner, I respond to Your call. All the praises and blessings be for You, All the sovereignty be for You. And You have no partner with you.”
(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Unlawful things during Ihram:

Allah says:

] يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ[
(المائدة: 95)

This means: “O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram for Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage).” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 95)

Allah says:

]فَلاَ رَفَثَ وَلاَ فُسُوقَ وَلاَ جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ[
(البقرة: 197)

This means: “Then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 197)

Allah says:

]فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُك[  (البقرة: 196)

This means: “And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Sawm (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity - feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep).” (2, Al-Baqarah: 196)

Killing games:

Allah says:

]فَجَزَاء مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَم[
(المائدة: 95)

This means: “The penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed.” (5, Al-Ma’idah: 95)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“A Muhrim must neither marry himself, nor arrange the marriage of another one, nor should he make a proposal of marriage.” (Reported by Muslim)

Tawaf (circumambulating):

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Circumambulation around the Ka`bah is like prayer, yet you speak during it. He who speaks during circumambulation should not say but what is good.” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

Jabir Ibn `Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“But when we came with him (the Prophet) to the House (Ka`bah), he touched the pillar and (made seven circuits) running three of them and walking four.” (Reported by Muslim)

Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

“The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) and his Companions performed `Umrah from Al-Ji`irranah. They went quickly round the House (the Ka`bah) moving their shoulders proudly. They put their upper garments under their armpits and threw the ends over their left shoulders.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

The invocation of Sunnah:

Allah says:

]وِمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّار[ (البقرة: 201)

This means: “And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!” (2, Al-Baqarah: 201)

The Maqam of Ibrahim:

Allah says:

]وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى[
(البقرة: 125)

This means: “And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) (or the stone on which Ibrahim (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka'bah) as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak`at after the Tawaf of the Ka'bah at Makkah).” (2, Al-Baqarah: 125)