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Proofs of Modern Science

Summary Proofs:
*#1 *#2
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*#5 *#6 *#7 *#8 
*#9 *#10 *#11 *#12 
*#13 *#14 *#15*#16 
*#17 *#18 *#19 *

7- Sun and Moon:

The Sun is an incandescent star, and is the source of light and thermal energy to the surrounding planets. The cold moon surface reflects solar light, thus illuminating several earth nights. This contrast in nature and role between the Sun and the Moon is well-expressed the Qurn:

         And We have made (therein) a shining (blazing) lamp. [78/13] 

         Blessed is He Who has placed in the Heaven big stars, and has placed therein a great lamp and a Moon giving light. [25/61]

         And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp. [71/16]

The apparent shape of the Moon changes in a cyclic fashion each lunar month, from crescent, to quarter, to gibbous, to full moon. These phases are a result of the relative positions of the Moon with respect to the Sun and the Earth. The Qurn says:

          And the moon as light and measured out for it stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. [10/5]

          And the moon, We have measured for it mansions (to traverse). [36/39]

A Solar year = 365.2422 days, while a Lunar year = 354.6036 days. Hence, 300 Solar years precisely equals 309 Lunar years, to the fourth decimal, no more no less. Surprisingly, Qurn  states that the People of the Cave stayed there for 300 years, that are also 300 and 9 more years, i.e. 300 Solar years or 309 Lunar years:

         And they stayed in their cave three hundred (Solar) years, adding nine (for Lunar years). [18/25]